Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today and why has this advantage increased in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn’t strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how significant the impact of each factor is.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However, this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for Glorynote.com/%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%B0%D8%A7-%D9%8A%D8%AD%D8%AF%D8%AB-%D8%A8%D9%8A%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B2%D9%88%D8%AC%D9%8A%D9%86-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%85/ men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.



The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in developed countries that it is today.

Let’s examine the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans at birth in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.لانجرى نكهات شفايف